This list identifies the key components of GUTCP. It is intentionally left math-free.

## Contents

### The Universe[edit | edit source]

At its most basic, the Universe consists of dynamic spacetime, spacetime distortions (matter created from energy), and interdependent interactions and energy exchanges between those distortions and spacetime that are, and can be, precisely determined.

- GUTCP correctly models all physical phenomena in the Universe using only the following principles and parameters within a single classical physics framework:
- Mass and energy must be conserved;
- Linear and angular momentum must be conserved;
- Maxwell’s Equations apply;
- Newton’s Laws apply;
- Lorentz transforms of Special Relativity;
- there are only 3 spatial dimensions plus time;
- the fundamental constants that comprise the fine structure constant;
- fundamental particles, as well as the photon, have of angular momentum;
- the Newtonian gravitational constant G;
- the total mass of the Universe; and
- the spin of the electron neutrino.

- The Universe has no beginning or end.
- The Universe oscillates endlessly with a cycle of a trillion years from a minimum radius where it is mostly matter filled, to a maximum radius where it is mostly energy filled and back again.
- The conversion of matter into energy expands Spacetime and drives the overall expansion of the Universe with the speed and acceleration of the expansion determined by the rate at which the matter of the Universe is converted to energy. "Dark energy" is neither real nor required.
- Space expands as matter is converted into energy and vice versa. This provides the basis of absolute space and the atomic, thermodynamic, and cosmological arrows of time.
- Matter, Energy and Spacetime are interconnected and conserved - an expansion of space requires a Lorentzian contraction of time and vice versa. (query)
- At the end of the expansion phase in an energy filled Universe, electron neutrinos dominate and these combine with photons to form only one type of neutron with no antiparticle, which beta decays to a proton, electron and an electron antineutrino. The proton and electron combine to form hydrogen. Over billions of years gravitional attraction and spacetime contraction form vast gas clouds from which celestial structures form. This is the basis for the observed lack of antimatter in the Universe.
- The number of protons in the Universe equals the number of electrons such that the the Universe is electrically neutral.
- Gravity arises on the atomic scale when energy is converted into matter. The positive curvature of two dimensional fundamental particles such as quarks and electrons causes a correction to spacetime that manifests as a gravitational field that expands at the speed of light. Gravity waves mediated by gravitons are neither observed nor exist. Claimed observations of gravity waves from blackhole and neutron star merges are detections of the expansion of spacetime travelling at the speed of light from such massive energy releasing events as it reaches and passes Earth.
- Singularities, being postulated, infinitely dense but zero-dimensional constructs, have no physical basis for existence such that the Big Bang did not occur and black holes do not contain singularities.
- The coherent rules of Classical Physics that govern Spacetime permit the formation of only three families of leptons, three sets of quarks, and their antiparticles. Claims that high energy collisions of matter in particle colliders produce multiple additional particles that are alleged to play some role under the standard model are erroneous, being a false interpretation of what are merely short-lived, high energy resonances from permitted particle formation.
^{[1]} - Where the gravitational potential energy density of a Black Hole equals the Planck mass, matter converts to energy and spacetime expands with the release of a gamma ray burst. The Universe can therefore never end in a "Big Crunch" and infinitely dense but zero dimensional singularities cannot form or exist.
- Spacetime has both permeability and permittivity that determines the limiting maximum speed of light which cannot be exceeded.
^{[2]} - Space acts as an LC-circuit (inductor-capacitor circuit) for the conductance of photonic energy.
- Particle production from energy occurs when superposed photons of the appropriate energy strike a particle and excite the resonant frequency corresponding to infinite vacuum impedance. This process is reversible.
- The Universe is closed (i.e. it is finite and therefore will contract)
- The Universe has no boundary. A person travelling away from a point in the Universe would eventually arrive back at the starting point.
- There is a natural relationship between Maxwell’s equations, special relativity, and general relativity which defines absolute space that rescues Newton’s Second law, resolves the twin paradox, and preserves the energy inventory of the universe.
- Matter is composed of real, physical fundamental particles only. There are no virtual particles, no zero point energy and no vacuum energy. A void is simply that - a void. Conservation of mass and energy is never violated.
^{[3]} - As there are no virtual particles, the weak Casimir force between two closely space plates is not caused by them. The Casimir force is a weak electromagnetic force that arises from the materials in the plates like van der Waal forces.
- A unified theory of the Universe can only provide the relationships between all measurable observables in terms of a clock defined according to those observables and used to measure them. While a unit of time (the second) can be defined by a set number of oscillations of an atom, a unit of time (called the "sec") can be defined in terms of fundamental constants which governs the interrelationship between matter, energy and the effect that conversion between the two forms has on spacetime. A unit defined in this way is still very close to the SI second but permits the mathematical formulation of a consistent and correct Grand Unified Theory.
- The Gravitational field arises from the curvature of spacetime (as stated in General Relativity). Spacetime curvature arises on a subatomic level from the velocity distribution of the continuous series of superconducting current loops that comprise the spherical shape (called an 'orbitsphere') of fundamental particles. Gravity can be thought of as the relativistic correction of spacetime due to the creation of matter from energy.
- The expansion phase of the Universe is only 10 billion years old and, as predicted by GUTCP in the 1995 edition of the book, it is accelerating. Currently the Universe is mostly matter filled.
- Matter can form into stars and galaxies during the end of the Contraction phase explaining the observation of fully formed older structures in the Universe that are older than the putative time line of the erroneous Big Bang Theory.

### Matter and Energy[edit | edit source]

- Matter and energy are interconvertible and are in essence different states of the same entity. The state, matter or energy, is determined by the laws of nature and the properties of spacetime.
- Both matter and energy possess inertial mass (i.e. the 'm' from Newton's second law of motion). Only matter can have gravitational mass (i.e. 'm1' and 'm2' from Newton's law of gravitation).
- The “mass” of the photon is the momentum contained in its electric and magnetic fields.
^{[4]} - All matter is composed of fundamental charged particles.
- All fundamental particles exist as mass confined to two dimensions, which when positively curved through the third dimension result in a contraction of spacetime, which is the origin of gravitational field.
- Matter possesses charge.
- Energy is stored in the electric and magnetic fields of matter as a consequence of its charge and the motion of its charge.
- Current comprises mass with kinetic energy and field energy components, a photon comprises energy.
- Matter can trap and absorb photons.
- The mass of the matter possessing a “trapped photon” increases by the mass energy of the photon
- The intrinsic electric field of a trapped photon can superimpose with the electric field of a nucleus either to decrease or increase the effect of the central field on electrons.
- Both particle and wave aspects arise naturally from the three dimensional structure of photons which superimpose in time and space to form a wave, which accounts precisely for the wave particle duality of light.
^{[5]} - There is no Higgs Boson. Matter and spacetime do not require yet another postulated particle or a Higgs' field to affect the properties of matter. The decay events that were claimed as the detection of the Higgs Boson were actually a neutron creation resonance arising from high energy particle collisions.
- An electron is not a zero dimensional point but a two dimensional, indivisible membrane woven out of current loops that can change shape and current density in the presence of external fields.
- An electron captured by and bound to a proton in a hydrogen atom forms a spherical two-dimensional shell of current, the radius of which is determined by the electron's mass, charge and angular velocity force balanced by the electric field of the proton and any absorbed or "trapped" photons that superimpose their charge to decrease or increase the central field.
- The stability of atomic ground states results from the absence of a trapped photon which has spacetime Fourier components synchronous with waves traveling at light speed, thereby precluding photonic radiation.
- Conservation of the photon's angular momentum is the basis for quantized energy states.
- Gravity arises from the creation of mass from energy and the curvature of current density in fundamental two dimensional particles and the contracting effect this produces on spacetime.
- A free electron in the absence of all external fields has no curvature and therefore no gravitational mass.
- A photon has inertial mass, but no gravitational mass
- Electric fields are considered part of the mass of a charged particle and fields can be converted into energy
- A bound electron is a resonator cavity, and can capture photons of the appropriate energy level.
- A photon trapped in an electron orbitsphere will act as charge that superimposes its electric fields with the electric field of the nucleus that can result in either an increase or decrease of the central field on the electron, which increases or decreases the electron orbitsphere radius.
- Absorbing a photon is the reason for the bound electron to enter an excited state. Force balance and conservation of angular momentum cause the electron's radius to expand.
- In the excited state, the superposition of the electron and the trapped photon results a current density pattern with a space-time Fourier transform that contains components synchronous with light and therefore the photon will radiate.
- The Planck mass is the mass/energy beyond which a particle cannot form from energy because the gravitational velocity of the mass that makes up the transitional energy to mass orbitsphere is equal to the speed of light.
- Where the gravitational potential energy density of a blackhole equals the Planck mass, matter converts to energy and spacetime expands with the release of a gamma ray burst. The Universe can therefore never end in a "Big Crunch".
- All charge distributions bound in matter form into an orbitsphere, a two-dimensional spherical shell of charge whose current distribution is composed of a complex pattern of great circle current loops.
- Electro-magnetic energy propagates over the surface of the orbitsphere as spherical harmonic waves.
- Excitation of resonance modes of an orbitsphere's spherical harmonic waves account for the various electron orbitals.
- The pattern of great circle current loops in the orbitsphere collectively account for spin as well as magnetic moment.

### Hydrogen and Hydrinos[edit | edit source]

- Hydrogen comprises most of the visible mass of the Universe.
- Dark matter, which far exceeds the amount of visible matter, is also hydrogen that exists in lower-energy, non-radiative forms termed Hydrino.
- Hydrogen consists of a small, positively charged proton fully enclosed by a negatively charged spherically curved electron (orbitsphere).
- The radius, charge density and angular momentum of the electron orbitsphere are all dynamic. These parameters will all change:
- to achieve stable force balance with the charge of the proton when the electron is first captured;
- when photons are absorbed or emitted; or
- when a resonant transfer of energy from Hydrogen results in the formation of a trapped photon in the orbitsphere that add positive integer values to the central field.

- A free electron that is captured by a proton to form a hydrogen atom will emit continuum radiation as it settles into the first non-radiative state (the former "ground") where the mass, charge and angular momentum of the electron is force balanced with the charge of the proton and is stable - i.e. it cannot lose energy by spontaneous photon emission to get closer to the proton.
- Hydrogen in the "ground" state is NOT in the lowest energy state as claimed by Quantum Mechanics - it retains a huge amount of potential energy due to the energy stored in the electric and magnetic fields of the proton and electron.
- Hydrinos are hydrogen atoms having energy levels below the so-called "ground" state, which is merely the first stable radius at which further energy cannot be lost by the emission of photons.
^{[6]} - The "ground" or first non-radiative state of hydrogen atom can resonantly transfer energy to ionise a catalyst that can accept an integer multiple of 27.2eV.
^{[6]} - The loss of 27.2ev of energy via resonant transfer from hydrogen results in the formation of a trapped photon inside the orbitsphere with an intrinsic electric field that superimposes a +1 integer increase to the positive central field of the proton.
- A bound electron experiencing a +1 increase to the central positive field will undergo an increase in radial acceleration, shrink, gain angular velocity and emit additional energy in the form of continuum radiation in order to restore force balance with the central charge, thereby becoming a hydrino.
- There are 136 hydrino states that are all formed by the resonant loss of an integer number of 27.2eV packets of energy followed by an increase in the central field of the proton and the emission of continuum radiation as the radius decreases and the kinetic energy of the electron increases to effect stable force balance.
- At the H(1/137) hydrino state, the electron orbitsphere current loops have velocity close to light speed and additional shrinkage is relativistically impossible. This is the true Ground State.
- Once formed, a hydrino is super-stable and may neither accept nor emit photons, making it invisible to spectral analysis yet retaining gravitational mass. (Resonant and collisional mechanisms may still occur.)
- A hydrino can gain or lose energy only via resonance reactions with matter, where the energy gained or lost is an integer multiple of 27.2eV.
- Hydrinos can act as catalysts by resonantly and nonradiatively accepting energy of 27.2 from another H or hydrino atom via metastable excitation, resonance excitation and ionization.
- Hydrino transitional spectra is detected as characteristic continuum radiation with predicted lower cutoffs.
- Hydrinos can bond to other hydrinos of similar energy to form dihydrino molecules.
- Hydrinos can also magnetically spin capture an electron to form a negatively charged hydrino hydride ion that is capable of forming ionic bonds with positive ions. There are only 24 hydrino hydride ion states.
- There is no hydrino hydride state above H(1/24)- because the hydride has two competing energy terms-- a term due to the magnetic energy and a term due to the electric energy. The magnetic energy is a function of the inverse cube of the radius. By pairing with a second electron, the radius is increased which decreases the electric energy which is a function of the inverse square of the radius. Thus the binding energy increases to a maximum of about 72 eV for H-(1/16) and decreases thereafter to 0.65 eV for H-(1/24). H(1/25)- cannot be formed because its binding energy is negative.
- The total energy released to the catalyst and by the hydrino during transition is intermediate between chemical and nuclear reactions. (e.g. H(1/1) to H(1/4) releases 204eV while H to H(1/137) releases 255,244.8eV.)
- Hydrino transitions exhibit characteristic "continuum" radiation, as opposed to radiation in discrete frequencies. This characteristic continuum radiation has been observed in multiple independent experiments.
- If a hydrino reaction takes place in an atmosphere, EUV radiation from the hydrino re-ionizes atmospheric molecules, resulting in visible light that closely matches the spectrum of natural sunlight.
- Dark matter exhibits characteristics that resemble the hydrino, including characteristic transition frequencies.
- Hydrinos at the H(1/137) state can capture an electron antineutrino, superimpose with the proton and convert to a gamma photon and electron neutrino.
- GUTCP can produce elegant, closed-form equations derived from fundamental constants only for the following values:
- Atomic and molecular binding energies, bond angles, excitation levels for all compounds
- Anomalous magnetic dipole moments for all fundamental particles
- Mass ratios for all lepton pairs
- Transition temperatures for low-temperature superconductors as well as 1, 2, and 3 dimensional high temperature superconductors.

### SunCell[edit | edit source]

- Blacklight Power has demonstrated prototype equipment, labeled
*SunCell*™, that purports to leverage the hydrino transition process to generate large amounts of commercially usable power. - The SunCell reactor introduces a low-voltage, high-current arc through dual streams of molten silver (conductor) with entrained hydrogen (fuel) and stable oxide as a source of oxygen (which combines with some of the hydrogen to form the HOH catalyst) that enables hydrino reaction.
- When the arc plasma is introduced to the compound, some elemental hydrogen partially disassociates from the water and then undergoes a hydrino transition with nascent water molecules(non hydrogen bonded) acting as the catalyst.
- Due to favorable energy dynamics in the arc, the hydrino reaction encounters a positive feedback loop which fosters a reaction rate similar to that of high explosives.
- The hydrino reaction emits characteristic continuum radiation in the EUV range, as predicted by GUTCP.
- The reaction chamber heats a graphite dome to 3500K, causing it to emit extremely intense visible light with a spectrum that closely matches natural sunlight.
- Nearly 100% of the work produced by the reaction is in the form of light, with a small fraction lost in pressure-volume work (i.e. heat, pressure wave & sound).
- The power density of the reaction is measured in terms of GW/liter, many orders of magnitude higher than internal combustion.
- The SunCell reactor is expected to extract as much usable energy from one liter of water as an internal combustion engine can extract from burning 200 liters of gasoline.
- The SunCell reactor can collect and channel the light into an array of highly efficient photovoltaic converters, which generates direct current electrical power.
- It is claimed that the entire mass of the reaction components, with the exception of the hydrogen that is converted into hydrinos, can be recovered and reused for subsequent reactions with only the introduction of new hydrogen.
- It is claimed that the SunCell has no moving parts to wear out.
- It is claimed that the silver and added oxide are not degraded from repeated exposure to the hydrino reaction.
- It is claimed that the amount of electrical energy required to generate the arc is very small compared to the generated power on the order of 1%.
- It is claimed that the hydrino waste product from the reaction will form molecular dihydrino gas, an inert and lighter-than-air gas, and drift harmlessly into space.

## Double Slit Experiment[edit | edit source]

- Electrons are real extended objects that occupy real space, not mathematical point entities based on probabilities that do not exist or exist everywhere until measured. Therefore they cannot divide or travel through two slits simultaneously.
- A single electron actually travels through only one slit to strike the detector. Over time a diffraction pattern is observed but this is not due to an electron travelling through both slits and interfering with itself. Such a claim is non-physical and contrary to the observation that particles like electrons are real.
- It is basic physics that charged particles, such as electrons, induce image currents in conductors. Such time dependent image currents emit radiation (photons).
- The observed diffraction pattern arises from momentum imparted to the electron from the photons generated by the slit material as a single electron traverses a single slit.
- A simple macroscopic analogy can be demonstrated by diffraction patterns arising from single fluid droplet "particles" propelled by so called "pilot waves". The diffraction pattern arises from the interaction between the waves of the medium as they traverse the slits and the droplet.
- the Double Slit Experiment is therefore not an endorsement of a spooky wave/particle duality of matter interpretation, but a simple example of the interaction of matter and photons.

## References[edit | edit source]

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